The Islamic republic of Pakistan emerged on the map of the world
as an independent sovereign state on 14th August 1947, as a result
of the division of the former British India. It lies between 23-35
to 37- 05 north latitude and 60-50 to 77- 50 east longitude. It
touches the Hindukush mountains in the north and extends from the
Pamirs to the Arabian Sea. It is bounded by Iran in the west, Afghanistan
in the north-west, India in the east and south east and Arabian
Sea in the south. There is a common border with China alongside
Gilgit and Baltistan in the north.
total area of the country is 796,095 sq.km with a population of
130.6 million according to population census 1988. It is divided
into four provinces viz. Sindh, Punjab, North West Frontier Province
and Balochistan. It consists of such physical regions as a) the
western offshoots of Himalayas which cover its northern and north
western parts of which the highest peak K-2 rises to 8611 meters
above sea level; b) the Balochistan plateau c) The Potohar Plateau
and salt range and d) The Indus plain, the most fertile and densely
populated area of the country. It gets its sustenance from the Indus
river and its tributaries.
Pakistan enjoys a considerable measure of variety. North and north
western high mountainous ranges are extremely cold in winter while
the summer months of April to September are very pleasant. The plains
of the Indus valley are extremely hot in summer with a cold and
dry weather in winter. The coastal strip in the South has a moderate
climate. There is a general deficiency of rainfall. In the plains
annual average ranges from 16 centimeters in the northern parts
of lower Indus plain to 120 centimeters in the Himalayan region.
Rains are monsoonic in origin and fall late in summers. Due to the
rainfall and high diurnal range of temperature, humidity is comparatively
low. Only the coastal strip has high humidity. The country has an
agricultural economy with a network of canals irrigating a major
part of its cultivated land. Wheat, cotton, rice, millet and sugar
cane are the major crops. Among fruits: mangos, oranges, bananas
and apples are grown in abundance in different parts of the country.
The main natural resources are natural gas, coal, salt and iron.
The country has an expanding industry. Cotton, Textiles, sugar,
cement, and chemicals play an important role in its economy. It
is fed by vast hydroelectric power.